Week 1
Tire Science, Research, Materials and Formulations
5 days, June 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 2021


Preliminary Conference Program

Compounding and Sustainable Mobility

Presentation details to be confirmed shortly

Raffaele di Ronza
R&D Open Innovation Expert
Bridgestone EMEA
Italy

Aging performance of NR-silica masterbatch compounds

Anke Blume
Professor
University of Twente
Netherlands
The introduction of the silica/silane system in NR is still a challenging task. There are different approaches to achieve a good dispersion level of the silica and a sufficient coupling rate of the silica to the polymer. One of them is the use of masterbatches where the silica is already pre-dispersed in the NR latex. A crucial factor in all rubber compounds is their aging behavior. In the current study, the aging behavior of rubber compounds that are produced with different silica/silane NR masterbatches is investigated in depth.

Comparison of methods assessing the dispersion of insoluble sulfur in rubber compounds

Dr Frederick Ignatz-Hoover
Technology fellow
Eastman
USA
Effective dispersion of compounding ingredients is critical for ideal performance in rubber vulcanizates. For insoluble sulfur, this need is no different. Assessing dispersion is difficult but critical to mixing process optimization for ideal vulcanizate performance. Prior to vulcanization, dispersion can be assessed by a variety of microscopic imaging techniques followed by image analysis. Sulfur dispersion can be assessed in a relative method after vulcanization by the study of tensile failure dispersion analysis. We recently introduced x-ray computer-aided tomography as a direct and quantitative tool to assess sulfur dispersion prior to vulcanization. This talk will cover the comparative advantages and disadvantages.

Multiscale molecular modeling and simulation for silica-reinforced rubber

Dr Tomofumi Zushi
Development engineer
Sumitomo Rubber Industries
Japan
Natalia Gajos
Global technical marketing manager - tire
Solvay Silica
France
Molecular modeling and simulation have become powerful tools for optimizing tire materials and predicting tire behavior. The current limitation of the simulation approaches for silica-reinforced rubber is the lack of precise description of the silica nature and the atomistic interface. In this session, a joint effort by Solvay and Sumitomo Rubber, a new simulation approach for silica-reinforced rubber will be presented, which is based on ab-initio and coarse-grained simulations. The real silica surface is simulated by all-atom reactive force field molecular dynamics, and the impact of the silica interface on the viscoelastic properties is evaluated by coarse-grained simulation.

Better compounding for better adhesion

Mojtaba Bagheri Jaghargh
Head of rubber engineering
Iran Tire Manufacturing Company
Iran
In tire technology, polyester, nylon and steel cords are the skeleton of the tire, and their composites with the rubber skim coats are very important. Most skim coat formulations consist of high phrs of natural rubber, which is a very good choice for adhesion to reinforcing materials as well as low heat build-up and high strength. However, this is all dependent on a good mix being achieved, which is a little tricky with natural rubber in high phrs. A suitable type of natural rubber can be very helpful for the compounders.

Sustainable development of rubber composites for a better environment

Amit Das
Scientist
Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden
Germany
The paper will describe some possibilities for the sustainable development of rubber technology. Considering the principles of greener and cleaner production of rubber composites, two different examples will be given: efficient devulcanization of cross-linked rubber, and the use of lignin as a reinforcing agent in the rubber compounds. We shall conclude that the present approach can be further utilized on a large scale for different rubber products with satisfactory elastomeric performance.

Sustainable materials for addressing next-generation tire industry performance needs

Annie Hu
Market development manager
Eastman
China
The global mobility system is going through massive transformation due to a trend toward more environmentally friendly solutions, leading to sustainability challenges. Eastman’s mission is to provide sustainable solutions that offer performance differentiation and competitive advantages for tire manufacturers. We will introduce rosin solutions for improving various tread compound performances. Eastman rosin products sourced from living pine trees are renewable, and the adoption of rosin products enables the sequestering of CO2 into tire products. These rosin derivatives have unique chemical structures and good compatibility with rubber. Thanks to these attributes, rubber compounds for both truck XXXXX.

Influence of functionalized S-SBR on the properties of silica-filled rubber compounds

Chigusa Yamada
Manager
Asahi Kasei Europe GmbH / University of Twente
Germany
Functionalized S-SBRs are used for the tire tread to improve rolling resistance (RR). The functional group that can interact with silica is introduced in the polymer to increase filler-polymer interaction. This increased filler-polymer interaction leads to a reduced filler-filler interaction and to a decreased tand at 60°C, an indicator for RR. The detailed mechanism of functionalized S-SBRs is still not clear. Therefore, the current study compares the silica compounds with several SBRs that have different types of functional groups, to better understand this mechanism, focusing particularly on filler-polymer interaction.

Simultaneous dynamic-mechanical and dielectric analysis of silica filled elastomer composites

Dr Sahbi Aloui
Senior application engineer
Netzsch Gerätebau GmbH
Germany
Dynamic-mechanical and dielectric analysis are well-established techniques to describe the material behavior on the macro and nanoscale respectively. Simultaneous combination of both techniques using the DiPLEXOR opens new opportunities to come closer to real applications during the operating phase by establishing the relationship between the macroscopic property change and the corresponding internal dynamics on the nanoscale. This represents the decisive criterion to understand why the samples are changing their properties during their service life. What is the criterion of cost efficiency? And can the mechanical state be continuously monitored during application in order to avoid damage and/or wear?

Polymer, Filler and Compound Additives

Optimizing performance resin compatibility to meet future tread performance requirements

Brian Stefanik
Market development manager
Eastman
USA
To comply with the latest regulations, OEM requirements and consumer demands, tire makers must optimize performance by carefully choosing the best performance additives and polymer blends. Future trends introduce additional challenges, since they indicate the need for higher resin and silica loading as the key to unlocking higher performance in tread compounds. At significant resin loading, the resin-polymer compatibility has a significantly greater impact on performance (wear, wet grip, rolling resistance) and processability. Understanding resin-polymer compatibility and resin partitioning can give compounders valuable insights into potential tread performance to help optimize tread formulations.

Increased sustainability: tire rubbers with raw materials from renewable resources

Kamyar Alavi
Senior tech advisor
Nynas AB
Sweden
The tire industry’s efforts to achieve higher levels of sustainability has been gaining strength in recent years, which is reflected in the explicit sustainability targets communicated from several producers. Although the solution is multifaceted, the introduction of alternative raw materials for the production of tires has been one of the routes to meet the challenge. In this presentation, we will take a closer look at key raw materials such as polymers, fillers and plasticizers made from alternative resources, and discuss how they can be used as alternatives or complements to traditional raw materials.

Using heavy naphthenic process oils to improve tire tread performance

Mary Ann Abney
Global technical marketing manager - process oils
Ergon Inc
USA
Tires are formulated with many different components designed to optimize their safety and performance. The performance demands shift depending on the end application of the tire. There are natural trade-offs, as shown by the magic triangle. Everything from the elastomer, process oil selection and filler system, to mixing, curing agents, phr loadings, etc can affect the end performance. Process oils used as extenders and/or plasticizers affect the performance of the tire tread. In this paper, we explore the impact of heavy naphthenic oil (HNO), heavy naphthenic black oil (HNBO) and treated distillate aromatic extract (TDAE) process oils.

Application of Crystex Cure Pro insoluble sulfur in belt compound

Cui Yi
Application development
Eastman
China
For decades, the tire industry has employed process limitations linked to its own productivity. Two constraints are associated with the dispersion and thermal stability of polymer sulfur. Crystex was created to address the original constraints around high-sulfur-containing compounds. As customers’ needs evolve, Crystex changes with them. Crystex Cure Pro is the latest generation of insoluble sulfur, engineered to bring superior dispersion, high-temperature stability and enhanced flowability. This presentation will show the application of Cure Pro in various belt formulations compared with typical OT20 grades in addition to the niche IS grades like OT33 and OT33AS.

Cure mechanism and morphology of polymer blends

Gina Butuc
PhD candidate
University of Twente/Nouryon
Netherlands
This research proposes a novel approach to decrease EPDM and EPM absorption of hydrocarbon solvents and oils by creating polymer blends with a low-molecular-weight polymeric material – a cyclic oligosulfide containing at least one tetrasulfide group in the molecule. The focus of this paper is on a proposed mechanism of cross-linking facilitated by both organic peroxide and sulfur; sulfur is generated in-situ by the cyclic tetrasulfide. An important role is played by ZnO in elucidating the mechanism of cross-linking. The ZnO surface chemistry influence on the sulfur cross-link process is studied by various microscopy techniques coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray.

Low-molecular-weight ‘liquid’ polymers – an alternative ingredient

Marcel Gruendken
Senior manager EMEA, MD&TS, R&D and regulatory affairs
Kuraray Europe GmbH
Germany
The presentation will discuss chemicals and innovations in the tire industry; differentiation of plasticizers, resins and polymers; co-reactivity with main polymers and interaction with fillers; Kuraray liquid rubber and applications in tires.

Surface pre-treatment techniques for silica nanoparticles

Sunkeun Kim
PhD researcher
University of Twente
Netherlands
Silica-silane is a commonly used filler system in elastomer technology. However, there are drawbacks to this technology: processing of the silica-filled compounds is complex, and this filler system does not work properly for all applications. To overcome the drawbacks of the silica-silane system, alternative surface pre-treatment techniques were investigated. The characteristics of the modified silica types as such as well as in their application will be discussed.

Butyl rubber composites using polysaccharide-based fillers

Ulrich Giese
Managing director and professor at Leibniz University of Hannover
German Institute of Rubber Technology and Leibniz University of Hannover
Germany
Cellulose is a polysaccharide from renewable sources with a high potential to be used as filler material in rubbers. The application in butyl rubber-based tire compounds is of high interest because it saves weight due to low material density and also improves the permeation resistance. To realize such nanocomposites, the large and polar cellulose surface must be chemically compatible with non-polar elastomer matrices. Commercially available nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was characterized fundamentally as a raw material and incorporated into BIIR by means of a special latex mixing technology. Several chemical analytical techniques and physical testing were used to characterize the compound.

Enhanced silica-NR tread performance by hybrid fillers and polymers

Wisut Kaewsakul
Assistant professor
University of Twente
Netherlands
To improve the properties of silica truck tire tread compounds, especially abrasion resistance, the effects of organoclay (OC) and carbon black (CB) N134 as secondary fillers as well as butadiene rubber (BR) and solution styrene butadiene rubber (SSBR) as secondary polymers in silica-filled natural rubber (NR) compounds at a ratio of 80/20 phr were investigated. The use of OC shows improvement in Payne effect and tan delta at 60ºC, indicative of reduced filler-filler networking, and rolling resistance of the compound, respectively, compared with the one without OC. Overall, the combination of BR and OC shows the best tire performance.

Developments in Reinforcements

Textile reinforcements behavior prediction through monofilament-scale understanding

Dr Nizar Didane
Material designer
Michelin
France
For the next few years, the tire industry will face demanding challenges, mainly in the areas of sustainability and long-lasting performance, leading to a strong need for appropriate technical solutions. To achieve this goal, Michelin invests considerable R&D resources in raw materials and final product comprehension studies. Considering textile reinforcements, the group has been involved in fundamental research around micro/mesoscales, such as single fibers. This methodology allows a better prediction of macroscale behavior. The presentation will highlight the micro/mesoscale analysis stakes and methodology. Important results related to the structure/property relationships of an aramid monofilament will also be shared.

Carbon nanostructures in tire applications

Jeff Silveria
Global segment manager - tire
Cabot Corporation
USA
Conventional reinforcing materials provide well-known benefits to tire performance by enhancing durability, safety and efficiency. Cabot continues to innovate in this space to expand the performance envelope and design space for customers. In this presentation, we will explore a new class of rubber compounds and concentrates prepared using three-dimensional reinforcing agents known as carbon nanostructures (CNS). CNS are a unique network of cross-linked carbon nanotubes that can deliver performance gains at very low loading.

Tire Design, Simulation, Modeling and Testing

Tire road wear: how and what to measure and label

Prof Burkhard Wies
VP R&D replacement PLT tires
Continental AG
Germany
Investigation of the minimum threshold for mileage wear loss requires appropriate testing at minimum cost. An understanding of wear mechanisms and possible testing methods, including an overview of simulation methods, is presented. A proposal for what a tire-wear-like analog of the UTQG labeling could look like will be elaborated.

Road-tire-wheel NVH simulation for vehicle virtual design

Frederic Biesse
Tire performance analysis expert
Michelin
France
Tire road noise is an increasingly challenging topic in vehicle interior noise due to engine optimization and electrification. Optimized tire road noise relies on an adequate coupling between the tires and the vehicle, to avoid bad filtering or mode resonance. To speed up the tire-vehicle design process by using simulation instead of physical testing, Michelin has spent many years developing a tire NVH simulation chain, including road excitation, cavity and wheel. The virtual design and submission capability of this simulation chain will be presented, illustrated through tire-vehicle optimization and troubleshooting results.

The latest developments in wheel and tyre modeling at Jaguar Land Rover

Jan Prins
Technical specialist
Jaguar Land Rover
UK
The presentation will outline the latest developments in wheel and tire modeling at Jaguar Land Rover. It will provide an update on progress made since the last presentation some years ago. A lot of progress has been made, particularly with respect to CAE supporting tire development.

New regulations and solutions for ice and snow tire testing

Jukka Antila
Technical director
Test World Oy
Finland
The new EU tyre label includes ice marking for the first time. Tests need to be done in specific conditions, allowing only a small variation between tests. Temperature and humidity have a significant impact on the grip level of ice, making testing outdoors very difficult. However, testing indoors allows these conditions to be controlled. Testing on snow is not much easier. The North American ASTM1805 spin traction ‘snowflake’ test is currently performed using conventional ICE vehicles. But now an all-electric drive vehicle offers better accuracy, adjustment and torque control, giving new possibilities for testing, especially when combined with indoor testing.

Comparing PRAT and PRCF between testing systems

Anders Maki
Systems engineer
MTS Systems Corporation
USA
Do differences exist between flat-belt tire testing systems when measuring small forces and moments caused by tire plies? Every system can measure these forces but not equally: some are better than others, as this presentation will demonstrate.

RIDEsuite: real-time multi-physical modular tire

Aleksandr Sakhnevych
Vehicle dynamics researcher | CTO
University of Naples Federico II | MegaRide
Italy
RIDEsuite enables a further necessary step toward the real-time modeling of tire-road interaction phenomena in offline and online environments. The software products – consisting of a high-performance full wheel thermal model, a dynamic Magic Formula based model, a multi-contact envelope-based model and a wear degradation model – are perfectly integrated into a plug-and-play solution, and also allow the partners to perform hybrid simulations with their own third-party modules thanks to the specially designed modular APIs. RIDEsuite is a completely modular system that can enhance real-time simulation for tire performance and vehicle setup optimization and help vehicle dynamicists achieve automotive excellence.

Achieve cut- and chip-resistant rubber compounds before tire development

Radek Stoček
General manager
PRL Polymer Research Lab
Czech Republic
The successful development of highly cut- and chip-resistant tire treads requires improved rubber compounds based on new generations of raw materials and additives. Moreover, to make the development highly efficient and become a worldwide leader in this growing segment, the implementation of predictive lab testing methods is key. This will accelerate the development process before the tire has been produced, by speeding up the development times and minimizing cost-intensive field tests. We demonstrate a novel lab testing methodology, including the Instrumented Chip and Cut Analyzer equipment.

Innovative tire development thanks to driving simulators

Mathieu Grob
Pre-sales manager
VI-grade
France
VI-grade strongly believes in innovation and has recently launched a new family of cable-driven simulators characterized by extended workspace, as well as a complete driving simulator product line dedicated to NVH applications. VI-grade also recently launched the VI-Certified program, which guarantees enhanced driving simulator compatibility with most third-party software providers. In particular, this program ensures native integration of all major tire models on the market (MF-Tyre, CDTire, FTire and MegaRide). The presentation will reveal VI-grade’s complete and open solution to support and develop a fast and efficient process for virtual tire design, testing and sign-off.

Visualization technology for the tire contact condition in actual driving

Kazuki Okamoto
Vehicle dynamics analysis specialist
A&D Company Ltd
Japan
The contact condition between the tires and the road surface is an essential element in considering vehicle behavior. Although the contact condition changes in various ways as the tire’s attitude changes during driving, there are few examples that comprehensively demonstrate these changes. Therefore, we use a dynamic contact force measurement device to acquire data under arbitrary camber/slip conditions, and introduce changes in the contact condition in response to wheel alignment. In addition, the actual contact condition is estimated by comparing it with actual driving data.

Snow characterization for the investigation of tire tread blocks

Jonas Heidelberger
Scientific assistant
Institute for Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS)
Germany
Real snow roads are exposed to changing conditions like unstable temperatures or snow. These changes have a significant influence on the snow friction of a tire tread block. We aimed to quantify the change in snow properties with a new experimental method, and to parameterize a snow model with the discrete element method (DEM). Different tire tread blocks were implemented in the parameterized DEM snow model. The results of the DEM simulation show the influence of snow properties on the snow friction of tire tread blocks.

Dynamic Section tire and the EV revolution

Elan Amirav
Manager
D&A Industrial Engineering Environmental Design
Israel
Dynamic Section is a patented concept designed to introduce rolling resistance optimization to pneumatic tires by significantly changing the ground contact patch in response to pressure values, dynamic loads and road conditions. As the tire in the EV’s drivetrain constitutes the main link between the motor and the road, regulating rolling resistance may produce more efficiency than in the case of the ICV. Having the ability to reduce the ground contact patch while cruising, and increase it when torque resistance or higher performance are required, may generate added value for the EV’s evolution and substantially extend the battery charging range.

Simulating the effects of tire aging on impact resistance

William Mars
President
Endurica LLC
USA
Endurica’s Incremental, Critical Plane Analysis has been applied to simulate the effects of aging on a tire’s resistance to cracking under road hazard impacts such as a curb or cleat. Aging kinetics are represented via a master curve with an Arrhenius-based time-temperature shift factor. Continuous evolution of the stiffness and crack growth rate law is considered. Simulation results show that although cracks in a new tire may operate below the intrinsic strength (i.e. fatigue threshold), over time the intrinsic strength may degrade in a time-dependent manner to the point where fatigue crack growth becomes inevitable.

Sustainable, Recycled Materials & Pyrolysis

Sustainability and recycling in the tire industry

Guido Veit
Vice president projects
Zeppelin Systems GmbH
Germany
With its know-how in process engineering, Zeppelin offers customers tailor-made solutions for the recycling of used tires. Together with its project partner, the company has succeeded in developing an innovative and economical process to recover steel, oil, gas and high-quality carbon black from used tires using the pyrolysis method in a continuous process. During extraction, Zeppelin guarantees process reliability, stability and the highest quality of the end products – a decisive factor for the profitability and sustainability of plant investments. Together with a renowned institute and its project partner, Zeppelin can clean recycled carbon black with regard to XXXXXXX.

Sustainability in rubber products and carbon black’s role in it

Aatif Misbah
Vice president, global marketing and strategy
Cabot Corporation
USA
At Cabot, we believe that long-term success requires a commitment to sustainability in its broadest form. Sustainable processes and actions help us avoid the depletion of natural resources, maintain an ecological balance and improve quality of life. In this presentation we share how carbon black plays an important role in improving daily life, and how Cabot is relentlessly pursuing solutions to the sustainability challenges of our customers, our communities and our world. We also talk about Cabot’s progress with its mindset of continuous improvement in carbon black production and which innovations will fuel the future of sustainable carbon blacks.

Recycling tires back into tires using high-quality eco-responsible materials

Nicolas Schüwer
R&D manager
Tyre Recycling Solutions
Switzerland
The problems associated with tire recycling remain a technological challenge and a threat to our society. Yet the responsible management and valorization of end-of-life tires is of growing concern and achieving their recyclability is demanded by end customers and manufacturers. This presentation describes how recycled waterjet rubber powders can be formulated back into tire rubber compounds while maintaining the required high performance and having a positive impact on the tire carbon footprint. It further provides technical insight on the fundamentals of waterjet rubber powder compounding and details strategies to localize the production of high-quality eco-responsible materials.

Global update on tire recycling and tire pyrolysis

Martin von Wolfersdorff
Principal advisor
Wolfersdorff Consulting Berlin
Germany
This global update on tire recycling and tire pyrolysis will include a global projects update and an innovation and technology update with a focus on tire-to-tire recycling.

The use of vegetable oils in tires for unique performance properties

Selim Erhan
Director of business development
Process Oils Inc, an Ergon Company
USA
Vegetable oils, derived directly from the beans and seeds of plants, provide a sustainable and renewable source of plasticizer for the rubber industry. However, they also provide several unique properties that result in significant performance benefits in processability and application properties. Their compatibility with higher-polarity elastomers such as SBR and BR makes them ideal for tire producers and industrial rubber products. This presentation will review the specific vegetable oils currently used widely in the rubber and tire industry and analyze their unique properties compared with traditional rubber process oils.

Sustainable tires with vegetative oils

Arup Saha Deuri
Head of R&D
Balkrishna Industries Ltd (BKT)
India
In order to make sustainable tires, every manufacturer is attempting to produce tires using sustainable material like castor oil, mustard oil, sunflower oil, cottonseed oil and palm olein oil instead of RAE oil. Work was undertaken on different tire components using full or partial replacement with vegetable oils; testing included endurance testing. Results show comparable results except for one or two parameters that can be improved by formulation adjustment.

Effects of process parameters on pyrolytic products recovered from scrap tires

Balan Ramani
PhD researcher
University of Twente
Netherlands
Pyrolysis is a promising technology for waste-tire recycling, but current technologies have their limitations due to the low quality of products recovered during the process. A better understanding of the process is required to improve the quality of tire pyrolysis products. In this study, tire granulates are treated via an innovative pyrolysis process to determine the influence of process parameters on the yield and properties of the pyrolysis products, i.e. pyrolytic carbon black (pCB), oil and gas. The pCB is compared with commercial carbon black in terms of physical and chemical properties, and almost comparable products are produced by this technology.

New insights into tire recycling using micro x-ray fluorescence analysis

Stefan Frosch
Laboratory engineer
University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt
Germany
Recycling end-of-life rubber products is a challenging task. One possibility is to reuse ground rubber particles (GRP) as a filler for virgin material. However, this recycled material leads to a reduction in rubber properties in comparison with new compounds. One reason is that sulfur is migrating from the matrix into the GRP, which most likely reduces the cross-link density of the surrounding matrix material. Micro x-ray fluorescence analysis (µ-XRF) reveals this diffusion effect and illustrates chemical element distributions on a scale of several square centimeters. Additionally, these concentration differences can be quantified with newly developed methods.

Strengthening tire and rubber manufacturing sustainability with bio-based oils

Andrey Bodrov
Market development manager
Orgkhim BCH Management Company, JSC
Russia
The trend of using bio-components is strengthening. The sustainability goals of rubber and tire makers are now based on green products from renewable raw materials. As a result, the number of eco-friendly tires and rubber goods targeting higher quality and the environmental requirements of consumers is growing. As a world-renowned TDAE process oil maker, Orgkhim actively develops Phytonorman bio-based oils to strengthen the sustainable growth of tire and rubber makers. Having mostly similar properties to aromatic oils, Phytonorman improves tire ice grip. The bio-oils effectively substitute DBP, widening application opportunities in rubber compounds. The oils are highly compatible with synthetic rubber.

Recovered carbon black: material characteristics and in-rubber performance

Arqam Anjum
PhD student
University of Twente
Netherlands
The aim of this study is to understand the different nature of pyrolysis carbon black compared with virgin carbon black. The current investigation is based on the influence of pyrolysis process parameters on the pCB material properties that are responsible for its reinforcing potential, including overall morphology and structure, and surface properties. Furthermore, the in-rubber performance of pCBs was evaluated and compared with the performance of virgin carbon black.
Please note: this conference program may be subject to change